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The technology and ultrasonic equipment to be used in the liquid-penetrant testing procedures, such as:

- ultrasonic baths, ultrasonic generators, portable and stationary cavitometers.

- consultancy and technical support.

Ultrasound is used during the basic stages of the liquid-penetrant testing:

-when preparing the products for testing;

- when infiltrating defects with the penetrant;

when removing the excessive penetrant, and during the final cleaning of the product.


The basic procedures of liquid-penetrant testing



As soon as the product has been prepared for testing, its defects are filled with the penetrant.

While excessive penetrant is removed from the product's surface; the penetrant is preserved in the hollows of the defect itself. Then the surface under test is covered with a developer solvent.

As the penetrant is absorbed by the developer solvent due to the sorption and diffusion effects, a trace of the defect is visible on the surface, brightly colored and luminescent in ultraviolet light. In case a self-developing penetrant is used, there is no need in covering the surface with the developer solvent.

The width of the defect trace greatly exceeds its corresponding size. Due to this it is possible to reveal even minute defects (with openings as little as 0.5 µm and less) in products of any sizes and shapes, made of metals, plastic materials, glass, ceramics, composition materials, etc.


Ultrasound in liquid-penetrant testing 

The core of the technology offered is the ultrasonic capillary effect, namely the phenomenon of increased liquid penetration depth and rate (or the rise height) observed in capillary channels, as a result of exposure to ultrasound.

The ultrasonic capillary effect has a cavitation nature. The flow of liquid, directed into a capillary is due to the cavitation hollows (bubbles) asymmetrically collapsing at the entrance of the capillary channel. Formed in this microjets of liquid, entering the capillary, cause a net effect of increasing the rate or the height of the capillary rise (or the penetration depth) of liquid.



The advantages of using ultrasound

The use of ultrasound ensures an increase in the test sensitivity, and the possibility to replace toxic inflammable liquids with harmless fireproof compounds.

Ultrasound efficiency examples

The upper row shows the results of defect visualization by conventional methods, and the lower row- with ultrasound applied.




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